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Il Vittoriano, located in Piazza Venezia (Rome) is a massive white marble monument dominating the Capitoline Hill, erected as a tribute to the first King of United Italy -Victor Emanuel II. The construction of the site began in 1885, inaugurated in 1911 marking the 50th anniversary of Italian Unification but finalized in 1935.
The two quadrigae on top of building represent Unity and Liberty. Below the columns and midway climbing the stairs is the equestrian statue of Vittorio Emmanuel II made of bronze designed by Emilio Gallori and inaugurated in 1911.
Below this statue is the tomb of unknown soldier chosen on October 26 1921 by Maria Bergamas a mother who lost her only son in World War I. Eleven unknown remains were gathered and the woman was given the chance to pick one body. The randomly chosen soldier was then buried in a state funeral (November 4,1921) celebrating all those who died in the war.
Once inside the building there is kind of a museum narrating the history of Italian unification.
Since long Il Vittoriano was criticised by artists for various reasons. The first reason is, a medieval neighborhood was doomed to build this massive structure. The second reason is its color, the white Altar of the Fatherland doesn’t match with the old brownish buildings in the area.
Because of its unpopularity Romans have coined the building names like: the wedding cake, zuppa inglese or typewriter.